brian rice
Curves

Guides

Glossary

A glossary of printmaking terms

Printers

Specialist master printers, print workshops and printing works that Brian Rice used to print his editions

Series

Guide to groups of prints around various themes

Guide to Print Entries

How the catalogue raisonnée is organized, together with a guide to the cataloguing categories such as Item Number, Series Title, Number of colours, Collections, etc

Editions & Publishers

Brian Rice's approach to editioning his work and the guide to his various publishers

Collections

The full list of collections which house prints and paintings by Brian Rice, including work in public and private collections abroad

Essays

Essays about Brian Rice available as PDF downloads

GLOSSARY OF PRINTMAKING TERMS
 

Aquatint

A means of producing a tone over an etching plate by covering the plate with a fine dust of rosin which, when melted, will provide a resist to the acid. Part of the group of intaglio techniques.

Artist's proof, a/p

A number of prints that are printed outside of or apart from the edition but the same as the edition which belong to the artist. In general, around 10% of the edition are specifically printed for the artist's use. Different practices often mean that prints are signed a/p without the edition being made. See also Edition.

Ancillary prints

A special event in Rice's oeuvre in which he has made a work using printmaking media without it being limited in an edition, e.g. Christmas cards, posters, etc.  

BAT

Used in a print workshop when working with a printer. From the French Bon ‡ Tirer meaning right to print, this is a single, proofed print that has been checked and approved by the artist with his signature that master printers use as a guide for making the edition. 

Chop mark

This is a small embossed, dry-stamped, printed mark that is generally placed adjacent to the artist's signature (lr) referring to a particular artist, printer, workshop or publisher.

Collaboration

The working relationship between artist and printer.

Colophon

A single additional sheet in a portfolio of prints that contains the printing information, e.g. title, date, place of printing, edition number, and is often signed by the artist.

Commission

A print or series of prints which a publisher has asked the artist to make. Usually in collaboration with a print studio/master printer.

Dates

An artist may (usually) write the date (generally year only) after his signature in the print in pencil, representing the date the print was signed.

Edition

The total number of prints decided by the artist that he requires made from an original matrix. After this number has been made, the matrix is usually destroyed. Prints are signed in a particular way, see Numbering. See also Original print.

Etching

A process of intaglio printing in which the metal plate is covered with a design in resist and then placed into an acid bath; the acid bites into the plate where metal is exposed creating a lower level which retains the ink for printing.

Folio

A shortened term for portfolio; a collection of prints.

Hand colouring

A term used generally in the Hybrid section which indicates that Rice has added to the image by over painting in layers with gouache or acrylic paints. The terms 'including painted additions' and 'overpainted with gouache' are also used to describe the addition of further colours to a hybrid work. 

Hors commerce, h/c

A French term for the copy of the edition that is intended for display purposes and is generally not for sale. 

Hybrid 

A special work in Rice's oeuvre in which he begins with a printed base but alters the image by hand by overpainting, often in layers of gouache or acrylic paint, and by adding textural materials. See also Hand colouring,Textural additions.

Inkjet

A high-resolution photocopy or computer-generated print usually made on specially coated paper. Giclée is another term for inkjet printing. Rice uses the term giclée to describe a reproduction, as distinct from inkjet, a term which he uses to describe an original print. 

Intaglio

The generic name for a printing method in which the image is produced by putting ink into the recesses of a plate and printing on a special press with damp paper which is pushed into these areas to collect the ink. See Aquatint, Etching.

Linocut

A print made from the surface of a piece of linoleum into which the artist has cut or gouged out an image.

Lithograph 

A method of printing which relies on the repellent reaction of water and grease, printed on an offset (generally plate) or direct (generally stone) litho press. The artist draws directly on a plate or stone with a greasy chalk or liquid. This is then processed so that the image remains during multiple printings (in which a greasy roller discharges ink onto the greasy parts of the plate).

Master printer

A printer who has worked to achieve an excellence or high level of competence in a specific area, e.g. screenprinting, intaglio, lithography, etc., and who has ability to collaborate sympathically with the artist to produce a work. 

Matrix

The printing element. Any material, e.g. a plate, stone, screen, block, on which a design has been created for the purpose of multiple transfer. Usually (but not always) a different matrix is required for each colour, and usually (but not always) each colour is printed separately.

Medium (pl. Media)

This describes the type of printing method, e.g. screenprint, woodcut, linocut, etching, lithograph.

Monoprint

A single unique print made by the artist using a printing medium with the intention that only one copy will exist. It can be produced by any printing technique such as screenprinting, lithography (or multiples of different techniques) but is not editioned. 

Mono-screenprint 

A single unique print produced by the screenprinting process. See also Monoprint.

Monotype

A print achieved when the artist draws or paints directly on piece of glass. An impression is made when a piece of paper is pressed directly on top of this drawing. Only one good impression can be achieved.

Multimedia print

A print produced by using two or more different printmaking techniques/media in the same work.

Multiple

A print which has no edition, i.e. there is no limit to the number of prints made. An open-ended production.

Numbering

The description of the edition, usually written in pencil on the left-hand bottom corner of the print, e.g. 5/50. The lower number (50) describes the size of the edition, the top number (5) represent the number of that particular print. See also Edition.

On consignment (OC)

A situation in which a print that is for sale is entrusted to a gallery for a period of time in order for the gallery to display/sell it. If the work is not sold in an agreed period, the print is returned to the artist.

Original print

An original work made by an artist using any printmaking technique, which, because of the nature of the technique, will mean that a limited number of identical copies will be made (an edition). 

Overpainted

See Hand colouring.

Photo-screenprint

A form of screenprinting in which a light-sensitive resist is used to make the image on the screen. See also Screenprinting.

Portfolio

A collection of works in a container. See also Folio.

Print

A piece of work made by using a printing technique, i.e. screenprint, linocut, woodcut, wood engraving, etching, aquatint, lithograph, monoprint, etc. The image is made by transferring a layer of ink from a matrix onto paper or other material, and usually exists in editions or multiple impressions of the same image. See also Multimedia print, Original print.

Printer's proof, p/p

A copy within the edition signed by the artist which belongs to the printer.

Printworkshop

A studio which contains special machinery for a particular printing process, e.g. etching studio, screenprinting studio. 

Printing block/plate/screen

The matrix usually created by the artist (or his printer) from which a print can be taken. See Medium.

Printmakers Council of GB

The Printmakers Council was founded in 1965 to promote the art of printmaking and the work of contemporary printmakers. It continues to pursue this aim by organising a program of exhibitions in London, throughout the U.K. and worldwide. Membership continues to be open to all printmakers, students, interested groups and individuals.

Progressive proof

A proof that shows the progressive state of the changes in a block, plate, screen or stone, which illustrates the development of the complete print showing each colour/element change one by one.

Proof

A generic term for a print pulled from a matrix during the preliminary work before editioning. Proofing is the term which describes the taking of prints to see how the image is progressing: An intermediate stage to editioning in which the development of the image is tracked and various inks, colours, papers and other variables are tested. See State proof, BAT

Relief print

A print taken from the top surface of a matrix, the opposite of intaglio.

Reproduction

A photographic copy of an original work, e.g. a photograph of a painting made into a giclée print. 

Restrike

The reprinting of a plate, screen or block (usually sometime after an edition has been originally made) to make a new edition.

Run-on

A number of copies made as an extra to the original run/edition, e.g. a run-on from pages of a book usually made by the printer of the original book. 

Screenprint

A printing technique in which the artist blocks out sections of the fine mesh (stretched over a frame/screen). Ink is then pushed through the mesh with a squeegee onto the paper below. Photo-screenprinting is a process whereby the image on the mesh is created by photographic means rather than by the artist's hand. See also Mono-screenprint.

Series

A group of works made collectively around a theme.

Signing

The finishing and authentication of a print by the artist in pencil, usually containing the edition number, the title of the work, the artist's signature and a date in that order from left to right at the bottom of the print. 

Signature

The artist's name in his own handwriting on the print, usually in pencil on the lower right-hand side underneath the image. The signature represents the authentication of the print by the artist.

Somerset Printmakers 

Somerset Printmakers was formed in 1998 by seventeen professional artists who live and work in Somerset. They each have their own private studios but aim to promote their work together in order to reach a wider audience and to show the best of printmaking from Somerset.

Special edition

An edition created for a specific reason. Often numbered in Roman numerals, e.g. I/XX.

Spoils

Discarded proofs; the spoilt, misregistered or imperfect prints from an edition that are usually destroyed when the edition has been completed. In Rice's case he often gathers these to take back to his studio to experiment with for future work. 

Stage proofs

See State proof.

State proof

A proof that is taken after each of the steps in the completion of the matrix. The difference between state and trial proofs: Trial proofs are pulled before the printing of an edition and test the printing (e.g. by changing colour, by changing the sequence of printing, by recutting areas of a block) and are subordinate part of the general term state proof which includes all prints which show a change in the plate made by deliberate intent, by accident or by deterioration. Stage proof is another term for state proof. Other types of state proofs include colour progressive proof, collaboration proof, colour trial proof. All proofs may be signed by the artist if he feels they are a unique and desirable variation of the edition. Note there is often an overlap in the designation of these proofs. See also Proof, Progressive proof, Artist's proof, Printer's proof, Hors commerce, BAT.

Textural additions

It has long been Rice's practice to add textural materials, such as sand, pumice powder, sawdust and carborundum grit to the paint when overworking proofs, as can be seen in the Hybrid section. With the co-operation of Artizan Editions, he has also produced a series of experimental mono-screenprints in which pumice powder and carborundum grit were incorporated into the screen inks. 

Title page

The page in a portfolio of prints that contains the title of the collection, the publisher and occasionally the artist's signature.

Trial proof

See State proof.

Woodcut 

An image cut into a plank of soft wood, e.g. pine, MDF, chipboard. 

Wood engraving

An engraving into the end grain of a block of hard wood, e.g. box, pear, apple.

PRINTERS

Specialist master printers, print workshops and printing works that Rice used to print his editions are listed in date order of appearance in the Catalogue Raisonnée.

Ward Studios, Yeovil (P047-052, A11-13, 15, 16)

Run by John Burnand and Jolyon Ward, two former students of Yeovil School of Art who set up this commercial printing and sign writing business after leaving art school.

P. B. Graphics, London (P053, 054, 056)

These were commercial screenprinters situated near Waterloo, London.

Advanced Graphics, London (P055, 064-069, 077-086) 

Advanced Graphics was established as a professional screenprinting studio where artists could go and work with master printer (Chris Betambeau until his untimely death in 1993) to produce editions. Rice worked with Advanced Graphics on editions commissioned by Eugene Schuster, London Graphic Arts Associates.

Peter Lipscombe, Harrow (P057-063, A17)

Rice was introduced to this printer who had a screenprinting set-up at his home in Harrow. Whilst he was a good printer, Rice moved on to the more professional Advanced Graphics when commissions from London Graphic Arts Associates began.

Curwen Studio, London (P070-076)

Set up and run by master lithographer Stanley Jones, the Curwen (just off Tottenham Court Road, London) offered artists the possibility of working with printers to produce original limited edition lithographs from plate and stone.

Etching/Relief Printing Studios, Brighton Polytechnic (P087-090)

Whilst lecturing at Brighton Polytechnic, Rice used the part-time etching technician/post-graduate student James Allen to make several editions in the etching and relief printing departments.

Letterpress Facility, Printing Department, Brighton Polytechnic (P094, 105, 106, A23, 31, 32)

Maurice Dixon, lecturer in the Letterpress Printing Department at Brighton Polytechnic (the facility for training printers for the trade, a separate area from the Fine Art Printmaking Department) was always keen to interest artists in his industrial unit. Rice made several prints in this area.

Michael Russell Wood, Loders, Bridport, Dorset (P102-104, A24-29)

This was a commercial print workshop run by entrepreneur Michael Russell Wood, who started his business making designs on enamel plates and mugs (Mikkimugs) at Loders, near Bridport in Dorset. He approached Rice to make a series of screenprints, which represented Rice's first experience of photo-screenprinting techniques.

Peninsular Design and Print, Exeter (P114)

Commercial lithographic printers.

Screenprinting Studio, Brighton Polytechnic (P120-122, 133, 134, H13-42)

Terry Gravett was the original screenprinting technician at Brighton (A19, 21). However, Rice collaborated with technician Ray Dennis in the Screenprinting Studio to make a number of prints.

Dickins, Castle Cary, Somerset (P123-132)

Rice had a number of woodblocks commercially printed at this letterpress printers.

Handprint, Brighton (P135-142)

Commercial screenprinter Andy White re-editioned the Japanese Series.

Reproarts, Chudleigh, Devon (P146-149)

A digital print studio in which artists can have work printed.

Artizan Editions, Hove, Sussex (P150-197, H43-73)

Sally Gimson and Angus Wade are master screen printers who run this screenprinting studio whose speciality it is to work with artists to produce limited editions of original prints. See also Publishers.

Double Elephant Print Workshop, Exeter (P108, 113)

Double Elephant Print Workshop is a not-for-profit, open-access, multi-media printmaking resource at Exeter Phoenix. Established in 1997, it offers a range of course, opportunities and outreach projects as well as the editioning of prints. Lyn Bailey is the printer who worked with Rice (2010).

Simon Ripley, Crediton, Devon (P143)

Simon Ripley is an artist printmaker who makes linocut relief prints using an Albion Press on handmade Japanese papers, occasionally editioning for artists. He is associated with Double Elephant Workshop as a founding member.

SERIES

Brian Rice has made a number of groups of prints around a theme. Titles include:

Japanese Series 1963 (P031-041)

Original woodblock prints, plus the photo-screenprint restrikes (P135-142).

Radials Series 1967 (P058-063)

A series of six abstract circular screenprints.

Sector No 1, 2, 3 1968 (P083, 065, 066, 067)

Pavilion Series 2009 (P157-197)

A series of mono-screenprints made with Artizan Editions, Hove, Sussex.

Landscope, 1976 (P094), and Extracts, 1979 (P106)

Rice contributed to two portfolios of staff/student prints whilst he was a lecturer in the Printmaking Department at Brighton Polytechnic.

T. E. Lawrence

Three screenprints were based on the enigmatic T. E. Lawrence and contradicting opinions about him (P102-104). 

Dorset (P146-149)

Ancient graffiti on Rice's studio walls in Dorset inspired a series of inkjet prints.

Rice's wood engravings of prehistoric rocks were actually conceived as a series in which edition numbers 1-49 of each edition were held back to make portfolios but to date (2010) these have not been completed (P123-128). A smaller series includes P129-132.

See also Hybrids for the Mizz-maze Series 1996 (H01-12), Kuba Variations Series 2004 (H25-40) and the Pennant Series 2009-10 (H45-73).
 

HYBRIDS (H01-73)

This describes works unique to Rice's oeuvre that sit in between painting and printmaking. 

Rice explains 'hybrid' as a piece of work which has begun life as a print but which is then taken out of the printing milieu and worked on by hand – in part or whole – which changes the nature of its existence, its visual impact and its intentions. This type of working is characteristic of Rice's experimentation in the medium of printmaking.

Rice begins by collecting the spoils (see Glossary), the misprints and the errors made during printing which usually contain one of the main parts of an image such as the key block in a woodcut. Sometimes, he will print a number of extra copies of the key block simply to take away to play with. By painting over these proofs, often over a period of time, Rice changes the construction of the image allowing colour to transform the work. This method of painting with gouache or acrylic paints on top of a printed image is where he feels his options for discovery are widened. 

Hybrid works are titled differently to the main body of prints and have been given their own section beginning with the prefix H. They often run in a series which can contain over 20 different painted variations; examples include the Mizz-maze Series 1996 (H01-12), Kuba Variations Series 2004 (H25-40) and the Pennant Series 2009-10 (H45-73).

ANCILLARY WORKS (A01-37)

This listing represents works in which Rice has made an original design which has been produced by a printing process and cannot for various reasons be classified as an original print. They include exam pieces, calendars, postcards, posters, Christmas cards, pages from books, book covers, etc. These works, which are generally made in unlimited editions and not signed, have been given their own index beginning with the prefix A, e.g. Poster, Montacute (A05).

Also included in this category are a few early textile samples printed by Rice himself whilst studying at Yeovil School of Art (1955-6) which he feels were integral to the development of his printmaking activities (A07).

CATALOGUE RAISONNÉ GUIDE TO PRINT ENTRIES


The online Catalogue Raisonné represents a database of the complete prints of Brian Rice from 1953 to 2010. As such, it is a work in progress and future prints will be added as they are produced. The catalogue has been organised by date of making and each entry contains a given order which describes the prints in detail. This has been compiled from Brian Rice's own archive in Somerset, from museums, private collections and the internet. Please see Glossary for explanations of terms used here.

Print Books

Rice started to keep a serious list of editions of prints (but no images) early in the 1960s when he began leaving work in galleries on consignment (OC).

In 1964, when he realised that prints were coming up in auction which he had no (or inadequate) details of, he instigated a more comprehensive print book listing titles, edition numbers, publishers, printers, dates, prices and, where known, buyers' details. This book, which began with his work at Yeovil School of Art, was numbered from 001. It is fortunate also that Rice kept extensive files of exhibition and catalogue details from an early date, and an archive of the majority of his prints plus posters and other ancillary work, as these have represented major sources of reference.

From 1999 onwards, as his body of work grew, Rice organised more thorough documentation, transferring his information into a loose-leaf files with separate books for prints and paintings.

Verifying details of a small number of Rice's prints found listed in his early notebooks, for example Racing Cyclist, 1957, Lithograph, and Cow Parsley Stalks, 1959, Lithograph, has proved impossible as the prints were untraceable, possibly destroyed.

PRINT CATALOGUE ENTRIES


The prints are described in the following manner:

Print number:       e.g. P061
Date:       e.g. 1967 (November)
Series title:       e.g. Radials Series
Title of print:       e.g. R IV
Description of medium: e.g. Screenprint
Size of image:       e.g. circle 10in (254mm) diameter
Number of colours:       e.g. 2 colours, khaki, orange
Published by:       e.g. (The artist)
Printed by (where):       e.g. Peter Lipscombe, Harrow
Paper:       e.g. Cartridge
Size of paper: e.g. 14 x 13in (368 x 330mm)
Edition size and number of proofs:       e.g. Edition 50,10 a/ps, 5 h/cs
Signature and date:       e.g. Signed lr, Brian Rice 67
Exhibited:       e.g. Shown at

     1967        London Graphic Arts Associates
     1967-75   Anschel Gallery, London (OC)
     1967        Westcott Art Centre, Dorking, Surrey
     1968        Grabowski Gallery, London
     1969-75   The Pigeonhole (Glucocracy), London (OC)
     1970        La Citta Gallery, Verona, Italy
     1971-75   Anderson O'Day, London (OC)

Collections:       e.g. Collections

     Grabowski Gallery (Mateuse Grabowski)
     Westcott Art Centre (Sir George Pollock)
     Private

Comments or notes

Print Number
The prints are numbered P001-197 representing Rice's complete known graphic oeuvre. These numbers do not correspond with those of his print books as, in making this catalogue, we have divided them into three categories for clarity: Original Prints P001-197, Hybrids H01-73, and Ancillary works A01-37. In the text, the identifying number of the print is listed in parentheses following the title, e.g. Radials Series, RIV (P061). For explanations of prints made outside of editions, see Hybrids, Ancillaries works and Glossary.
 
Date
The prints in the catalogue are chronologically listed in the year that they were completed and signed. The majority were published in the same year, but on a few occasions a print will have been made and signed in one year and published at a later date (e.g. P086). In some cases, Rice has included the month of making (where known) after the year date, for example P061, 1967 (November)

Where a reprint or editioning of a plate or block has taken place later than the proofing date, the restrike date is shown with the restrike information (e.g. P095).

Series title
Entries include a series titles where applicable. Rice made a small number of prints in series which were given a collective name, e.g. Radials Series (P058-063). The name of the series occurs before the title of the print. A complete list is given in Series.

Rice has also developed a set of works which he calls Hybrids which started life as rejected proofs/spoils and were later worked on by hand.

His archive also contains a number of original prints titled Ancillary works which are a collection of the artist's own hand-printed cards, posters, catalogue covers, etc.

Title of print
This represents the name of the work designated by the artist. Rice titled all of his prints although he did not always write the title on the work. Where a work is titled on the print, it is in pencil in the centre of the work underneath the image at the bottom of the page. On commissioned prints, Rice tended not to include the title (although they were listed in his print book). On figurative prints, he usually included a place description as the title, e.g. Nallers Farm (P106).

Titles of all prints have been given their own alphabetical index with their identification number, see Print Title Index.

As Rice returns to the same subject matter, some titles will bear a resemblance to each other, for instance Nallers Farm (P106), Dorset Farm (P107). Titles with the same theme or subject matter are listed in the Print Subject Index.

If a print has no written title, it can be identified by date (reference Catalogue Raisonnée), medium (see Print Media Index) or colour (see photographs).

Description of media and size of image
A short description of the print medium is followed by the size of the image in inches and a translation into mm, height followed by width. Please note that these sizes have been taken to nearest eighth of an inch. See Glossary for a description of Rice's media.

Number of colours
Details of the colours in Rice's prints have been provided by the artist himself. These have been generalised into the closest descriptive equivalent, e.g. khaki (P061)

Published by
Where a publisher is not listed, the artist himself has published the print. Throughout his career, Rice worked with a number of publishers who commissioned prints; further information about the publishers can be found in Editions and Publishers. Occasionally there are notes under the print listing itself concerning the relationship Rice had with a particular publisher, e.g. Negative Brown (P075).

Printed by
Printed by the artist indicates that Rice himself printed the work in his studio (occasionally without a press e.g. P031). If he printed the edition himself in a studio other than his own, this is also listed. For a description of the print media, see Glossary. However if a print was commissioned, a publisher would often pay for the printing of the edition and in such cases, the printer is listed along with the publisher (e.g. P081 is published by London Graphic Arts Associates, printed by Advanced Graphics, London.) In a small number of cases, because a print was complicated or he did not have the necessary equipment in his studio, Rice would use a printer even when the print was published by himself (e.g. P061). Details of Rice's printers can be found in Printers.

Type and size of paper
The papers Rice used are mostly English (although some Japanese and Indian papers are in evidence), usually white or cream and are very variable – generally machinemade (e.g. cartridge, book paper, poster paper, newsprint), occasionally mouldmade (as for commissioned editions, e.g. J Green Mouldmade, Saunders Waterford, Somerset and Bockingford) and a few handmade (e.g. Japanese, Indian [Khadi Papers], and possibly Crisbrook  – although no identifying marks have been found). Rice's choice of papers is inconsistent and he explains that he was never given instruction on which papers to use. His early practice was to use anything that was to hand and early editions can usually be found on a variety of papers (e.g. P002), This means that on a number of occasions a print has been made on an inferior paper (e.g. P144). With the commissioning of prints, Rice relied heavily on the advice of the printers and a better quality of paper was introduced which enhanced the hand-printed quality of the various media. Rice also used papers of varying sizes in the early editions (although difficult to list as few copies exist), exemplified in some of the woodcuts (e.g. P107). A variety of deckle, torn and cut edges can be found on the prints determined often by the requirements of lay edges of a particular print medium.

Edition size and number of proofs
Rice's edition sizes vary from 5 to 100 in general and do not follow any pattern. The smaller editions often indicate that the artist himself printed the work and the larger editions that a publisher was involved. It is Rice's usual practice to limit the edition of every print but in a small number of cases, he has produced a multiple – a print where the edition number is unlimited: For Studio (P064) is such a print in which the magazine Studio International gave away one of Rice's print in every sixth copy of the magazine. See also Glossary.

Blocks and plates
It is usual after an edition has been printed to cancel a matrix by either erasing the image, destroying the stencils or making a cut mark across the block or plate. In cases such as small woodcuts, linocuts and some of the experimental blocks, Rice has often carefully preserved the matrixes either to keep them for their own sake or in order to restrike the edition at a later date. See also Glossary.

Restrike
Occasionally Rice will restrike (reprint) a woodblock or linocut in a different media, for example Japanese Series, Daijobu (P035) and Daijobu (Restrike screenprint, P138). A restrike has also taken the form of making multiple prints from a work made up of multiple images. For example, the set of four woodblocks in P94 were separated to form new individual prints – P095, 096, 097, 098. See also Glossary.

Uneditioned
This indicates that no edition was taken from a plate/block. In some cases, Rice did not edition a block because multiple copies 'did not seem necessary'. In these cases, Rice generally is using the printed image as a learning process or as an intermediate stage to develop a print further. On occasion, Rice has stopped the printing of an edition when a publisher made unacceptable demands (see P075, P076).

Artist's proof, a/p
In the earlier prints (1953-69), Rice signed everything that was not given an edition number as an artist's proof (a/p). When professional editioning practices began with the commissioning of work, the a/ps were made extra to the edition – around 10% of the published edition – and given to the artist for his own use, as is normal practice. For example, P065, P079, etc. See Glossary.

Hors commerce, h/c
H/cs are the part of the edition used for display and these are in evidence in the larger commissioned editions, e.g. from London Graphic Arts Associates (e.g. P079), although Rice made them for himself on occasion (e.g. P057). See Glossary.

State proofs
Rice occasionally made proofs which were printed copies showing certain states or stages of the block/plate development. See Glossary.

BAT
French, from Bon ‡ Tirer, meaning right to print. The BAT is a signed proof which the artist makes with a printer which is then used as a guide for printing of the edition. Rice only lists one BAT (P109). See Glossary.

Signature and date
Rice signed his name on every print mostly in pencil underneath the image as an approval of the work, a practice which he continues today. The position of his signature is indicated by ll, lower left, or as is usual, lr, lower right hand: Very rarely, he signed in felt pen (P053), or in paint (H15). His signature changes over time can be seen in Signatures on Prints.

In the 1970s, Rice began to find that dating of prints affected his sales and decided not to include dates for that reason. However, on approximately half of the total of his prints, he has added a date in pencil after his name.

Chop mark
In 1997, Rice designed a chop mark for his prints 'on a whim'. This consisted of an image of the sun taken from a prehistoric rock engraving and the text 'BRIAN RICE NEW HOUSE HEWOOD' which runs around the outside. The first print to be chop-marked was Heelstone (P133). His chop mark, however, has been used irregularly. See Glossary.

Exhibited
Rice kept excellent documentation from the beginning of his art activities and the listing of exhibiting venues is confirmed from his own extensive archive of private view cards, posters, catalogues and diaries. (OC) after an entry indicates that the print was left On Consignment, see Glossary; (SP) after an entry indicates that the exhibition was organised by Somerset Printmakers – Rice was a member of this group from 1998-2008 and exhibited with them frequently (see Glossary); (Artizan Editions) or (AE) after a gallery indicates that the work was exhibited by Artizan Editions (see Publishers).

Collections
Rice's prints are represented in public and private collections in Britain, America, Japan, Italy, Australia and Canada (see Collections).

Comments or notes
These represent specific recollections about a print provided by Rice which he felt would add to the understanding of a work.

 

EDITIONS


For Rice, the making of editions are a commercial decision. In the 1960s, one of the reasons he became interested in editioning concerned the politics of selling – the philosophy of making work available to a wider audience at a modest price and large editions of prints satisfied that principle. Where he is commissioned to make a print for a dealer, then the numbers in the edition and artist's own proofs are clearly distinguishable, a practice that happened regularly in the 1960s.

Rice describes a second type of editioning in which he himself does the printing as 'more organic': His approach here is often to print a smaller print run in which he first determines the edition size (e.g. 50) and then prints only the first 5, for instance 1/50 – 5/50. When these are sold, he will print numbers 6/50 – 10/50, and so on. This means that, as in the case of many of the woodcuts, the edition was printed over a period of years and marked fluctuations can be seen in the type and size of the paper, and even in the hand colouring of details – for example, in P107, where on occasion, propelled by a buyer, Rice has hand coloured the fields and sky.

Interestingly, a number of processes unique to Rice's oeuvre grew out of a practice which involved the unused proofs, the misregistered prints called 'spoils.' He would use these prints as images for painting on in an intuitive search to discover another way of developing an image. See Hybdrids and Glossary.

PUBLISHERS


Brian Rice and Tony Evans (P054)
Tony Evans was a commercial photographer and friend of Rice's. At this time (1967), Evans was taking photographs for an advertising campaign for Tern shirts. Rice had bought an 'op art' shirt and together they decided to make a print of it (photographed by Evans), The Death of Op Art (P054). They also collaborated on The English Sunrise book (see Bibliography) in the summer of 1968, which won numerous awards.

Consolidated Fine Art Corporation Inc., New York (P070-076)
The CFAC, fronted by Edward Newman from an office in Soho, London, commissioned Rice to produce a number of hand-printed lithographs with Stanley Jones at the Curwen Studio in Tottenham Court Road, London. Issues developed with two of these prints, Negative Brown (P075), and Spiral Plan (P076) because Newman changed the colours of the prints without consulting the artist. Rice stopped dealing with Edward Newman in 1970.

London Graphics Arts Associates (P055, P077-084)
1969 marked a heyday for American print dealer Eugene Schuster, who set up London Graphic Arts Associates (part of the London Arts Group) from a gallery in Grosvenor Street, Mayfair, London. He commissioned a number of prints (using large editions to keep prices low) from young British artists including Rice, which he sold at reasonable prices. His method of selling the work was to tour it around Britain and the US exhibiting, for example, in British colleges and universities.

Printmaking Department, Brighton Polytechnic (P094, P106)
Several portfolios of prints were published by the Specialist Printmaking Group whilst Brian was Lecturer-in-Charge (from 1972 until it became a Masters Course). Rice was a lecturer in the Foundation Department (1966-71) at Brighton before moving into in the Fine Art Printmaking Department (1972-2001).

English Editions (P085, 086)
This company run by Howard Capponi (who originally worked for E. Schuster), tried to imitate the London Graphic Arts operation in the US. (Ref. Tessa Sidey Brian Rice as Printmaker: Beyond Finality, Note 11)

Published by the artist
In many cases, Rice paid for an edition to be printed. Having taught printmaking for 35 years, Rice himself is an experienced printer but when he did not have the equipment, the time or in some cases the expertise to make a particular print, he would commission the edition from a professional printer.

When Rice was lecturing at Brighton (whose name changed from -Art School, to -Polytechnic and finally to -University in 1992), he produced a number of editions per year as examples of good working practice especially when he was lecturer with responsibility for Relief Printing (woodcut and lino printing). This was in part to demonstrate to the students that it was technically possible to produce complicated relief prints with basic materials, and also that painting and printmaking were an interwoven activity for Rice. He also took the opportunity to use screenprinting to produce editions with help of the technician, Ray Dennis. It is also worth mentioning that from 1979-1990, Rice was restoring two houses in Dorset and had no dedicated studio of his own at home.

Artizan Editions (P150-197, H45-73)
Artizan Editions, situated in Hove, Sussex, is one of a few master screenprinting workshops in the UK who work in direct collaboration with artists. Artizan, run and owned by Sally Gimson (with printer Angus Wade), also invite artists to work with them and as such acts as publisher as well as printer. In 2009, Artizan invited Rice to make a series of monoprints, the Pavilion Series (P157-197). As with other editions published by Artizan, the publishers retain a certain part the edition and the artist the rest. See also Printer.

A complete list of public and private collections in Britain, America, Japan, Italy, Australia and Canada which house Brian Rice's work.

See Catalogue Raisonné > Collections for a searchable list

COLLECTIONS (Prints and Paintings)

Berkshire Education Authority
British Council
Canadian Broadcasting Services, London
Croydon College of Art
Dudley Museum
Education Authority, Hertfordshire
Flintshire School of Art
Geffrye Museum
Golding, Baker & Guy, London
Government Art Collections
Grabowski Gallery (Mateuse Grabowski)
Greenwich Library, London
Hertford College, Oxford
John Courage
Northumberland Education Authority
Philpott Museum, Lyme Regis
Plymouth City Art Gallery
Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter
Sheffield City Art Gallery
Somerset Health Authority
Somerset NHS Trust
South London Art Gallery
Southampton City Art Gallery
Southampton University NHS Hospitals Trust
Start Designs, London
Tate Gallery, London
University of Aberystwyth, Wales
University of Brighton, Sussex
University of Bristol
University of Cardiff, Wales
University of Lancaster
Victoria & Albert Museum, London
Walsall Education Authority
Westcott Art Centre (Sir George Pollock)
Worcester Museum

WORK IN PUBLIC AND CORPORATE COLLECTIONS ABROAD

Albright Collection, Reading, Pennsylvania
Atlantic Richfield Co. New York
Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
Bucknell University, Pennsylvania
Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
General Library, University of California
Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, Michigan
Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, Florida
Jewish Federation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Lake Erie College, Painsville, Ohio
Library Art Committee, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Museum of Art, Oklahoma University
Museum of Modern Art, Skopje, Macedonia
Navfac Engineering Commission, Washington D.C.
Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, Nebraska
Sara Lawrence College, Bronxville, New Jersey
Southern Colarado State College, Pueblo, Colorado
Southern Illinois University, Carvandale, Illinois
Space Planning Association, Charlotte, North Carolina
Synanon Foundation, Santa Monica, California
The Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire
University of Vermont
Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio
Wichita Falls Museum, Texas
Xavier University, Cincinatti, Ohio

It has proved difficult to locate specific works to listed collections as dealers, such as London Graphic Arts Associates, would often give Rice a list of collections that works had been sold to without listing the actual work acquired.

ESSAYS

List of essays about the work of Brian RIce.

AttachmentSize
Brian Rice as Printmaker – by Tessa Sidey (PDF)612.34 KB
Printmaking Today - Vol.10 No.2 - Profile of Brian Rice By Sara Hudston.pdf190.65 KB

COLLABORATORS AND COPYRIGHT

Writer and editor Silvie Turner (with generous help from Brian Rice)
Text input by Jacy Wall

Web Design: Freeway Projects
Concept: abouttheartist
Photographs © Brian Rice 2010 (unless otherwise credited)
Catalogue and ancillary material © Silvie Turner 2010
Essay © Tessa Sidey 2010

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